Despite freedom of religion being provided for in both the constitutions of Taiwan and China, the reality of practicing religion in each country couldn’t be more different. State control of religion in China ensures a watchful eye is maintained over religious organisations and has been reinforced by recently updated Religious Affairs Regulations, which have led to a notable curtailment of religious freedom and a rise in state sponsored discrimination against and repression of religious groups. The ROC, on the other hand, has received plaudits from human rights organisations and NGO’s for is protection of religious freedom. Hosting the Taiwan International Religious Freedom Summit in Taipei City, in September of this year, marked the country as a strong defender of religious freedom in Asia. The implications of these two approaches impact social cohesion, stability and diversity in both societies and cause tensions in Chinese diplomatic relations with democracies around the world.